Baltic Sea Fisheries:
The marine ecosystem in the central Baltic Sea is dominated by three fish species: cod, sprat,and herring. These species also form the basis of the economically most important fisheries in the Baltic Sea. In addition, their stocks are closely connected by strong ecological interconnections among species, as cod preys on both sprat and herring. In economic terms, the cod fishery used to be the most important of the three. Overfishing, however, caused a decline in the cod stock during the last decades, and only recently the introduction of a long-term management plan has led to some signs of stock recovery again.
Exemple of future development of spawning stock sizes for the baseline scenario under present day management effectiveness.
Shaded areas show the most likely development ± one standard deviation. Stock dynamics are interlinked by market interactions.
Martin F. Quaas, Till Requate, Kirsten Ruckes , Anders Skonhoft , Niels Vestergaard , Rudi Voss,(2013) , Incentives for optimal management of age-structured fish populations, Resource and Energy Economics 35 ,113–134